In both Texas paternity cases and other Suits Affecting the Parent-Child Relationship “SAP-CR” cases (including Divorces), a Texas court may order so-called “retroactive” child support, or what is essentially back child support for periods of time in the past where child support was not ordered, but where there was a duty of support.
In a Texas paternity case, absent evidence that the prospective obligor knew about the obligation and “sought to avoid the establishment [of an Order],” the Court will presumptively limit the award of retroactive child support four years of support. Tex. Fam. Code § 154.131. In setting the amount of retroactive child support, the court shall consider the net resources of the obligor during the relevant time period and whether:
(1) Whether the mother of the child had made any previous attempts to notify the obligor of his paternity or probable paternity;
(2) Whether the obligor (Dad), had knowledge of his paternity or probable paternity;
(3) Whether the award of retroactive support will impose an undue hardship upon the obligor or his family, and
(4) Whether the obligor provided any actual support or other necessaries before the filing of the action.
In ordinary SAP-CR cases under Tex. Fam. Code § 154.009 (a), the Texas Courts can order a parent to pay retroactive child support if the parent:
(1) has not previously been ordered to pay support for the child; and
(2) was not a party to a suit in which support was ordered.
Notwithstanding Subsection (a), the court may order a parent subject to a previous child support order to pay retroactive child support if:
(1) the previous child support order terminated as a result of the marriage or remarriage of the child's parents;
(2) the child's parents separated after the marriage or remarriage; and
(3) a new child support order is sought after the date of the separation.
In these situations (as contrasted with paternity, above), the Court may order retroactive child support back to the date of the separation of the child's parents.
It is also significant to note that unless the Texas Office of the Attorney General was “a party to an agreement” which settles past, present, or future support obligations by prepayment or otherwise, an agreement between the parties does not reduce or terminate retroactive support when the Attorney General so requests.